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New geochemical and mineralogical constraints on the genesis of the Vani hydrothermal manganese deposit at NW Milos island, Greece: Comparison with the Aspro Gialoudi deposit and implications for the formation of the Milos manganese mineralization

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Aspro Gialoudi-Vani, Milos Island, Inhalative Mn-Ba-Pb deposit, Epithermal intermediate-sulfidation
Papavassiliou, K.; Voudouris, P.; Kanellopoulos, C.; Glasby, G.; Alfieris, D.; Mitsis, I.
Ore Geology Reviews
594 - 611
The Mn-Ba-Pb deposit at Aspro Gialoudi in NW Milos is shown to be a fossil inhalative-exhalative hydrothermal deposit that represents the deepest part of the Vani succession at the western extremity of the main Vani manganese deposit. The geology of the Vani-Aspro Gialoudi area is characterized by Upper Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene dacitic and rhyodacitic lava domes, which are overlain by the Vani volcaniclastic unit considered to be part of the 2.66–1.44Ma magmatic event at Milos Island. The presence of in-situ and intrusive hyaloclastite breccias surrounding the coherent lava domes at Aspro Gialoudi and Vani areas indicates submarine emplacement for the domes. The dacitic-rhyodacitic domes are variously altered (mainly propylitic and/or argillic alteration, silicified and in some cases locally exhibiting adularia alteration). Both Aspro Gialoudi and main Vani deposit are located proximal to fault systems: the main Vani manganese deposit is adjacent to the NW-trending Kondaros-Katsimouti-Vani Dome fault, whereas the Aspro Gialoudi deposit is adjacent to the relatively minor NE-trending fault on the west coast of Milos. At Aspro Gialoudi, mineralization took place in a subseafloor and/or seafloor environment and is characterized by a stratabound Mn-barite-rich deposit mainly within a package of propylitized intrusive hyaloclastites and within the overlying sandstones. Banded epithermal veins trending NE-SW and composed of chalcedonic silica/quartz+barite+Mn-oxide±sulfides crosscut the dacitic lavas, the hyaloclastites and the overlying volcaniclastic sequence at Aspro Gialoudi and are considered to represent the feeder zones of the manganese-barite mineralization. Within the veins, early sulfide (galena-sphalerite) barite and quartz deposition is followed by manganese oxides and aragonite, thus resembling the epithermal-style Pb-Zn-Ag-Mn mineralization across the NW-trending Katsimoutis-Kondaros-Vani fault. Mineralization in Aspro Gialoudi and Vani deposits seems to be controlled by alternating cycles of deposition of sulfides and hydrothermal manganese oxides within the faults. Manganese deposition in both deposits formed in a similar manner, namely by transport of hydrothermal fluids through the adjacent fault systems into a reservoir of volcanoclastic sandstone and hyaloclastites to produce a deposit initially consisting of principally of pyrolusite and occasionally ramsdellite, which were subsequently replaced by cryptomelane, hollandite, coronadite and hydrohaeterolite. Precipitation of hydrothermal manganese oxides took place very quick and under microbial Mn(II) oxidation. Compositional data show that metallic elements most enriched in the Aspro Gialoudi and Vani manganese deposits relative to the average continental crust, lie in the sequences Pb>Cd>Mn>As>Sb>Zn>W>Tl>Ba>Cu>Mo>Co>Bi and As>Sb>Pb>Mn>Tl>Cd>Zn>W>Cu>Ba>Mo>Co, respectively. Mineralogical and geochemical (e.g. REE) data from both Aspro Gialoudi and main Vani deposit are taken to indicate mainly a seawater source for the hydrothermal fluids. These two deposits are genetically and spatially related to base- and precious metal intermediate-sulfidation epithermal mineralization. They formed successively by similar processes and are considered to be integral parts of the same hydrothermal system.


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